References

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  • Davidson, P. J. A., and G. F. Clulow. 2015. Black-crowned Night-Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) in The Atlas of the Breeding Birds of British Columbia, 2008-2012. Edited by P. J. A. Davidson, R. J. Cannings, A. R. Couturier, D. Lepage, and C. M. Di Corrado. Bird Studies Canada. Delta, B.C. Retrieved from: http://www.birdatlas.bc.ca/accounts/speciesaccount.jsp?sp=BCNH&lang=en.  
  • Davis Jr., W. E., and J. A. Kushlan. 1994. Green Heron (Butorides virescens). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/grnher DOI: 10.2173/bna.129.
  • Davis Jr., W. E., and J. C. Kricher. 2000. Glossy Ibis (Plegadis falcinellus). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https:// DOI.org/10.2173/bna.545.
  • Davis, S. K. 1994. Cowbird Parasitism, Predation, and Host selection in Fragmented Grassland of Southwestern Manitoba. Master's Thesis, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg.
  • Davis, S. K., and S. G. Sealy. 1998. Nesting Biology of Baird's Sparrow in Southwestern Manitoba. Wilson Bulletin 110:262-270.
  • Davis, S. K., and S. G. Sealy. 2000. Cowbird Parasitism and Nest Predation in Fragmented Grasslands of Southwestern Manitoba. Pages 220-228 in Ecology and Management of Cowbirds and Their Hosts: Studies in the Conservation of North American Passerine Birds.  Edited by J. N. M. Smith, T. L. Cook, S. I. Rothstein, S. K. Robinson, and S. G. Sealy. University of Texas Press, Austin.
  • Davis, S. K., and W. E. Lanyon. 2008.Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/wesmea.
  • Davis, S. K., M. B. Robbins, and B. C. Dale. 2014. Sprague's Pipit (Anthus spragueii). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/sprpip DOI: 10.2173/bna.439.
  • Dawson, W. R. 2014. Pine Siskin (Spinus pinus). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/pinsis DOI: 10.2173/bna.280.
  • Day, R. H., I. J. Stenhouse, and H. G. Gilchrist. 2001. Sabine's Gull (Xema sabini). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.593.
  • De Jong, M. J. 1996. Northern Rough-winged Swallow (Stelgidopteryx serripennis). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/nrwswa DOI: 10.2173/bna.234.
  • de Juana, E., G. M. Kirwan, and E. F. J. Garcia. 2017. Willow Grouse (Lagopus lagopus). In Handbook of Birds of the World Alive. Edited by J. del Hoyo, A. Elliott, J. Sargatal, D. A. Christie, and E. de Juana. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Retrieved from: http://www.hbw.com/node/53323.
  • De Ruyck, C. C. 2009. Northern Saw-whet Owls: Migration and Population Trends in Manitoba. Masters Thesis. Natural Resources Institute, University of Manitoba.
  • De Smet, K. D. 1983. Breeding Ecology and Productivity of Red-necked Grebes in Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, Manitoba. Master's Thesis, University of North Dakota, Grand Forks.
  • De Smet, K. D. 1987. First Nesting Record and Status of the Clark's Grebe in Canada. Blue Jay 45:101-105.
  • De Smet, K. D. 1987. Organochlorines, Predators and Reproductive Success of the Red-necked Grebe in Southern Manitoba. Condor 89:460-467.De Smet, K. D. 1983. Breeding ecology and productivity of Red-necked Grebes in Turtle Mountain Provincial Park, Manitoba. Master's Thesis, Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks.
  • De Smet, K. D. 1992. Manitoba's Threatened and Endangered Grassland Birds: 1991 Update and Five-year Summary. Manuscript Report 92-03, Manitoba Natural Resources, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
  • De Smet, K. D. 1992.  Manitoba's Threatened and Endangered Grassland Birds: 1991 Update and Five-year Summary. Manitoba Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Branch, Endangered Species and Nongame Section.
  • De Smet, K. D. 1993. Status of Ferruginous Hawk and Loggerhead Shrike Recovery Efforts.   Prov. Mus. Alberta Nat. Hist. Occas. Pap. No. 19; Proceedings of the 3rd Prairie Conservation & Endangered Species Workshop: 329-332.
  • De Smet, K. D. 1997. Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia) Monitoring and Management Activities in Manitoba, 1987-1996. Pages 123-130 in J. R. Duncan, D. H. Johnson, and T. H. Nicholls, editors. Biology and Conservation of Owls of the Northern Hemisphere: Second International Symposium. U.S.D.A., Forest Service General Technical Report NC-190, North Central Forest Experiment Station.
  • De Smet, K. D. and M. P. Conrad. 1989. Status, Habitat Requirements, and Adaptations of Ferruginous Hawks in Manitoba. Pages 219-221 in Proceedings of the Second Endangered Species and Prairie Conservation Workshop. Saskatchewan Museum of Natural History, Regina, Saskatchewan, Canada.
  • De Smet, K. D., and M. P. Conrad. 1988. First Documented Nesting Record and Status of the Willow Flycatcher in Manitoba. Blue Jay 46:149-154.
  • De Smet, K. D., and M. P. Conrad. 1991. Management and Research Needs of Baird's Sparrows and Other Grassland Species in Manitoba. Pages 83 - 86 in Provincial Museum of Alberta Natural History Occasional Paper No. 15: Proceedings 2nd Prairie Conservation and Endangered Species Workshop.
  • Dechant, J. A., M. L. Sondreal, D. H. Johnson, Lawrence D. Igl, C. M. Goldade, M. P. Nenneman, and B. R. Euliss. 1998 (revised 2002).  Effects of Management Practices on Grassland Birds: Chestnut-collared Longspur. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, North Dakota.
  • Dellinger, R., P. B. Wood, P. W. Jones, and T. M. Donovan. 2012. Hermit Thrush Catharus guttatus. The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https:// DOI.org/10.2173/bna.261
  • Dias, R. A., D. E. Blanco, A. P. Goijman, and M. E. Zaccagnini. 2014. Density, Habitat Use, and Opportunities for Conservation of Shorebirds in Rice Fields in Southeastern South America. Condor 116:384-393.
  • Dinkins, M. F., A. L. Zimmerman, J. A. Dechant, B. D. Parkin, D. H. Johnson, L. D. Igl, C. M. Goldade, and B. R. Euliss. 2000 (revised 2002). Effects of Management Practices on Grassland Birds: Horned Lark. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center, Jamestown, ND. 34 pages. https://pubs.usgs.gov/unnumbered/93848/report.pdf.
  • Donaldson, G., C. Hyslop, G. Morrison, L. Dickson, and I. Davidson (editors.). 2000. Canadian Shorebird Conservation Plan. Ottawa: Canadian Wildlife Service. 
  • Dorr, B. S., J. J. Hatch, and D. V. Weseloh. 2014. Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus). The Birds of North America. Edited by A. F. Poole. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.441.
  • Downes, C., P. Blancher, and B. Collins. 2011. Landbird Trends in Canada, 1968-2006. Canadian Biodiversity: Ecosystem Status and Trends 2010, Technical Thematic Report No. 12.  Canadian Councils of Resource Ministers. Ottawa, Ontario. Retrieved from: http://biodivcanada.ca/53E166A0-B0B2-4092-8444-CDED9A485C1F/No.12_Landbirds_May_2011_E.pdf.
  • Drilling, N., R. D. Titman, and F. McKinney. 2002. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https:// DOI.org/10.2173/bna.658.
  • Drovetski S. V., M. Rakovic, G. Semenov, I. V. Fadeev, and Y. A. Red'kin. 2014. Limited Phylogeographic Signal in Sex-linked and Autosomal Loci Despite Geographically, Ecologically, and Phenotypically Concordant Structure of mtDNA Variation in the Holarctic Avian genus Eremophila. PLoS ONE 9(1): e87570. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0087570.  http://birdingfrontiers.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/Eremophila.pdf.
  • Dubowy, P. J. 1996. Northern Shoveler (Anas clypeata). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/norsho DOI: 10.2173/bna.217.
  • Dugger, B. D., K. M. Dugger, and L. H. Fredrickson. 2009. Hooded Merganser (Lophodytes cucullatus). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/hoomer DOI: 10.2173/bna.98.
  • Duncan, J. R. 1992. Influence of Prey Abundance and Snow Cover on Great Gray Owl Breeding Dispersal. Ph.D. Thesis. Zoology Department, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba.
  • Duncan, J. R. 1997. Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa nebulosa) and Forest Management in North America: A Review and Recommendations. Journal of Raptor Research 31(2):160-166.
  • Duncan, J. R. 2016. Owls of the World. New Holland Publishers. Chatswood, New South Wales, Australia.
  • Duncan, J. R. 2018. An Evaluation of 25 Years of Volunteer Nocturnal Owl Surveys in Manitoba, Canada. iro. Submitted.
  • Duncan, J. R., and P. A. Duncan. 2014. Northern Hawk Owl (Surnia ulula). The Birds of North America. Edited by A. F. Poole. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.356.
  • Duncan, P. A., and W. C. Harris. 1997. Northern Hawk Owls (Surnia ulula caparoch) and Forest Management in North America: A review. Journal of Raptor Research 31(2):187-190.
  • Dunn, E. H. 1997. Setting Priorities for Conservation, Research and Monitoring of Canada's Landbirds. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.
  • Dunn, E. H., A. D. Brewer, A. W. Diamond, E. J. Woodsworth, and B. T. Collins. 2009. Canadian Atlas of Bird Banding Volume 3: Raptors and Waterbirds, 1921-1995. Canadian Wildlife Service, Ottawa, Ontario.  Retrieved from: http://publications.gc.ca/site/eng/347558/publication.html.
  • Dunn, E. H., and G. A. Hall. 2010. Magnolia Warbler (Setophaga magnolia). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/magwar DOI: 10.2173/bna.136.
  • Dunn, J. L., and J. Alderfer. 2011. National Geographic Field Guide to the Birds of North America. Sixth Edition. National Geographic Society, Washington D.C.
  • Dunn, J. L., and K. L. Garrett. 1997. A Field Guide to Warblers of North America. Houghton-Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.
  • Dunn, P., and D. W. Winkler. 1999. Climate Change Has Affected the Breeding Date of Tree Swallows Throughout North America. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 266:2487-2490.
  • Dykstra, C. R., J. L. Hays, and S. T. Crocoll. 2008. Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://birdsna.org/Species-Account/bna/species/reshaw DOI: 10.2173/bna.107.
  • Dykstra, C. R., J. L. Hays, and S. T. Crocoll. 2008. Red-shouldered Hawk (Buteo lineatus). The Birds of North America. Edited by P. G. Rodewald. Retrieved from: https://doi.org/10.2173/bna.107 .
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